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Full Scale Applications

Below is information related to Full Scale Applications.

Title: Hazardous waste surface impoundment technology.
ISSN: 0733-9372
Author: Ghassemi, Masood; Haro, Michael
Abstract: The design, construction and performance data for hazardous waste surface impoundments (SIs) at nine facilities were reviewed, and actual and projected performances were compared. Discussions were also held with four design engineering firms, one waste management company, one liner installer/fabricator, and regulatory agencies in three states. The following were identified as essential in achieving good site performance; Siting in suitable geological formation; continuity of the geotechnical support throughout the project planning, site investigation, design, and construction; construction supervision to ensure adherence to specifications; compaction of clay wet of optimum to eliminate air space; consideration of compatibility with waste in selecting linear material; rigorous QA/QC to ensure adequate design and proper liner installation; and providing and maintaining protective cover for liners.
Abbreviated Serial Title: J Environ Eng
Title: Owl rock says goodbye to slurry holding ponds
ISSN: 0032-0293
Author: Garrett, Rodney E.
Abstract: Owl Rock Products built a new aggregate plant in Annaheim, Calif., to increase production capacity and to reduce production costs. The problem of handling and stockpiling washed-out fines was solved by eliminating the settling ponds. The slurry is continuously filtered on a belt filter press and the cake is automatically scraped off the screen and directed to the solids holding area.
Abbreviated Serial Title: Pit Quarry
Title: Slurry reclamation soil covers alternatives.
Author: Nawrot, Jack
Abstract: Current reclamation requirements require that 4 ft of soil or other material be used as final cover on those slurry impoundments not capable of supporting vegetation. Implementation of this requirement is often expensive and difficult due to inavailability of cover and surface instability. Understanding the distribution patterns of acid and non-acid components within a slurry pond or utilizing disposal/discharge management practices to minimize or eliminate the severity and extent of acid producing zones is essential to implementing cost effective alternatives to the current 4-ft soil cover requirement. To promote an understanding of a laboratory's slurry reclamation program, this paper provides an overview of typical physical, chemical and hydrologic characteristics of slurry impoundments and a management approach to identification and implementation of reclamation alternatives.
Abbreviated Serial Title: Sess Pap Am Mining Congr Coal Conv
Title: Recovery of fine-size coal from impounded wastes
ISSN: 0747-9182
Author: Hanna, J.; Kalathur, R.
Abstract: Over the years, Alabama's coal industry has generated, during mining and cleaning operations, about 150 million st of fine waste coal, with this total increasing at a rate of 2 million stpy. Reclamation of the fine-size wastes (containing 20% - 60% clean coal by weight) provides, free of charge, mined and crushed feed stocks for coal recovery. Also, the removal or recovery of pyrite from the tailings should eliminate a major source of acid-water pollution. Tests were made on the impounded wastes and current plant discharges to recover the coal fraction by sizing, gravity and flotation techniques. Gravity separation of the mesh material produced commercial-grade coal averaging 7.6% ash, 0.8% sulfur and 13,471 Btu/lb. However, the coal yield, at about 31% - 56%, was relatively low. Froth flotation, using mechanical and froth column methods, gave similar coal products at much higher coal recovery rates of 87% - 93%. This coal analyzed 10% ash and 1.1% sulfur.
Abbreviated Serial Title: Miner Metal Process
Title: Homestake nears completion of project to impound tailings and recycle water.
Author: Anon
Abstract: Homestake Mining Co.’s effluent control project now nearing completion in the Black Hills near Lead, S. Dak. , is highlighted. The 10 million construction job includes a tailings impoundment area in Grizzly Gulch, two slurry pipelines from the processing plant to the impoundment area, a decant line, a recycled water reservoir, two 125-ft-diam and one 50-ft-diam thickeners, an enlarged sand storage dam, and a tailings pump house and structure. The Grizzly Gulch project will eliminate discharge of tailings from the Homestake processing plant into Gold Run creek.
Abbreviated Serial Title: Eng Min J
Title: Incineration of liquid flammable wastes and biological sludge in coal-fired boilers.
ISSN: 0073-7682
Author: Townsend, Mark W.    Monsanto Co.,  Nitro,  WV,  USA

The incineration of liquid. Flammable wastes and biol. sludge in coal-fired boilers was successfully demonstrated as a method of disposal at Monsanto's Nitro, West Virginia, plant for manful. of rubber chems.  In addition. To being economical, it is also the most environmentally acceptable method of disposal, eliminating future groundwater contamination liabilities associated. With the land filling or surface impounding of these 2 wastes.  In the case of the liquid. flammable residues, another benefit was heat recovery via steam generation; since steam was generated, the residues were exempt from Resources Conservation and Recovery Act regulations falling under the legitimate reuse/recycle classification.  Although the burning of sludge required a slight increase in coal usage, the cost avoidance of acceptable alternative disposal methods far outweighed the cost of additional. coal.

Abbreviated Serial Title: CAPLUS ACS on SciFinder
Title: “Novel Dewatering Aids for Mineral Concentrations and Coal,”, Coal cleaning technology to be used to recover coal from waste
Author: Roe-Hoan Yoon, Gerald Luttrell, and Gregory Adel
co-authored by Yoon with his students and research colleagues
Abstract: Blacksburg, Va. -- Billions of tons of coal that have been considered waste for decades can now become an energy source, thanks to the advanced separation technologies developed at Virginia Tech.

Patented Microcel™ technology, developed in the mid-1980s by Roe-Hoan Yoon, Gerald Luttrell, and Gregory Adel, professors of mining and mineral engineering, and their group at Virginia Tech, has been in use worldwide for many years to separate coal and other minerals from impurities. In the mid 1990s, Yoon developed chemistry that can be used to dewater clean coal.

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Abbreviated Serial Title: Virginia Tech Univ.
Title: The design and operation of two pond- fines recovery facilities
Author: David J. Akers, Clark D. Harrison, and James W. Parkinson
Abstract: The production of a synthetic fuel requires that the coal undergo a significant chemical change.  Scientific studies have demonstrated that some pelletizing, briquetting, and extrusion technologies (collectively called pelletizing for ease of discussion) cause the coal to change chemically through a reaction between various binders or other agents in the presence of the heat and pressure generated by the pelletizing process.  In addition, recent tests have shown that a coal-fines reconstitution process developed by the Department of Energy causes a significant chemical change in coal without pelletizing.

Pelletizing and other reconstitution technologies require a fine-sized feed coal and over two billion tons of fine-sized waste coal is believed to be in impoundments or landfills in the US.  After cleaning, this waste coal can provide an economical feedstock for a synthetic fuel facility while providing an environmental benefit by reducing the size and number of waste coal impoundments and landfills.

Past efforts to recover fine-size coal from waste impoundments has been largely limited to mixing a small amount of waste fines, often without any cleaning, into a shipment of coarse coal that can be degraded in quality and still meet required moisture and ash specifications.  However, when pond fines are used to feed a synthetic fuel plant, the economics of the situation change so radically that some facilities become arguably the most sophisticated coal processing operations in the US.
Abbreviated Serial Title:  
Title: Advanced Coal-Cleaning System to Recover Fine Coal from West Virginia Pond
Abstract: System Turns "Waste" Into Useable Fuel

Pittsburgh, PA — The first commercial use of an advanced coal-cleaning system comprising two advanced separation technologies will take place this summer when it is used to produce clean, upgraded coal from a large fine-coal waste pond located in southern West Virginia. Developed with support from the Department of Energy, the innovative system will create useable fuel from discarded "waste" and could be used to clean up the hundreds of potentially deadly coal-waste "impoundments"—waste ponds behind earthen dams—that dot the Appalachian mountains.

The innovative separation system will be installed near Pineville, W.Va., at property owned by Pinnacle Mining Company. It uses two processes: One produces clean coal by separating impurities like clays, silica, and pyrite from waste coal, and the other separates water from the cleaned coal. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Beard Technologies, Inc., and the Energy Department’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) developed the two-step separation system under NETL’s Solid Fuels and Feedstocks Program, which aims to reduce the high cost of processing fine coal.

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Abbreviated Serial Title:  
Title: Coal-fines utilization future
Author: Keith Campbell
Abstract: An environmental-impact assessment for a full-scale coal-fines utilization demonstration plant at Eskom’s Hendrina power station is now under way.

This was reported at the recent South African Coal Preparation Conference (organized by the South African Coal Processing Society and held at Secunda, in Mpumalanga) by Mike Blenkinsop, of the company Waste Energy Recovery and Management (Werm).

The project to use coal fines in feeding power stations began in 1999, when Eskom and Werm started research and development into the feasibility of an economically-viable process to use the large amounts of fine coal existing in this country in the electricity utility’s power stations.

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Abbreviated Serial Title: Engineering News Mining Weekly Contributing Editor
Title: New recycling technology to be tested at Virginia coal-fired power plant universal aggregates plans to turn coal combustion waste into useful products
Author: King George
Abstract: Each year Mirant's Birchwood Power Facility in King George, VA, pays to have more than 100,000 tons of coal combustion ash disposed of in a municipal landfill. A new Department of Energy project may soon demonstrate that this ash has significantly more value than as the daily cover material for a community's solid waste.

The department recently signed a cooperative agreement with Universal Aggregates, LLC, of Bridgeville, PA, to design, construct and operate a manufacturing plant at the Birchwood Power Facility that will turn the ash into lightweight aggregate that can be used to make a variety of construction materials, from masonry blocks and concrete to asphalt paving material.

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Abbreviated Serial Title:  
Title: Surface-chemistry technology to recover valuable fuel from abandoned waste coal slurry ponds and the fine-coal circuits of active coal preparation plants
Author: DTE PepTec
Abstract: DTE PepTec, Inc., a subsidiary of DTE Coal Services, is using its patented surface-chemistry technology to recover valuable fuel from abandoned waste coal slurry ponds and the fine-coal circuits of active coal preparation plants. The first DTE PepTec project demonstrated the economic viability of the technology during the first quarter of 2003. A 500,000-ton per year phase II plant has been constructed and is now producing a high quality fine coal product.

The PepTec® Process applies a reagent in a high-energy environment to break the surface bonds between coal particles and clay-sized impurities. The reagent is non-toxic and safe for the environment. Once the bonds are broken, the coal particles are recovered by conventional fine coal cleaning processes. With the removal of the clay contaminants, the final product is free-flowing, will not absorb water, and can be easily transported and handled.

Historically, many waste coal slurry ponds have represented environmental challenges, requiring remediation by the companies or governmental entities responsible for them. Now these ponds can be economically reclaimed and made suitable for other uses.
Abbreviated Serial Title:  
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